However, this energy is without focus or direction, which would not allow for survival. The structure of the mind and development all revolve around how the individual attempts to deal with psychic energy. Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. In Human Behavior in Global Perspective: Both frustration and overindulgence or any combination of the two may lead to what psychoanalysts call fixation at a particular psychosexual stage. The adult personality emerges as a composite of early childhood experiences, based on how these experiences are consciously and unconsciously processed within human developmental stages, and how these experiences shape the personality. Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixation , characterised by passivity, gullibility, immaturity, unrealistic optimism , which is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation. Much of the child's energy is channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge, and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender. The Role of Conflict Each of the psychosexual stages is associated with a particular conflict that must be resolved before the individual can successfully advance to the next stage. Frustration, Overindulgence, and Fixation Some people do not seem to be able to leave one stage and proceed on to the next. Hence the boy develops castration anxiety. The girl resolves this by repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby. Contemporary criticism also questions the universality of the Freudian theory of personality Id, Ego, Super-ego discussed in the essay On Narcissism , wherein he said that "it is impossible to suppose that a unity, comparable to the ego can exist in the individual from the very start". Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes, and behaviors of another person. Fixation refers to the theoretical notion that a portion of the individual's libido has been permanently 'invested' in a particular stage of his development.