Stigmatization of male victims was said to be the cause of low reporting rates for corrective gay rape. Sexual violence in prisons is linked to gang violence and its power structures, and inmates who are sexually abused are targets for repeated abuse, and usually are victimized again and again. Once a prisoner is 21 he is transferred to the adult section. What the annual report did show, however, was that, in the past year, the department paid out more than R4-million in damages to inmates for "rape". In , the region of Gauteng accounted for the largest percentage of prisoners in custody for sexual offences with A trade union report said a child was being raped in South Africa every three minutes. In August, when Sonke and JDI launched a booklet on training warders about sexual abuse in Cape Town, the inspecting judge for correctional services, Vuka Tshabalala, who is responsible for monitoring human rights abuses in prisons, appeared to sleep through the discussion. All staff members, and specifically operational managers, are aware of the need to treat human beings with dignity to ensure that we live up to what we strive for. There were four deaths due to smoke inhalation, and three because of a medication overdose. The gangs themselves are distinguished according to their aims and activities: According to the report by the United Nations Office on Crimes and Drugs for the period —, South Africa was ranked first for rapes per capita. Officials used chemical agents, non-lethal incapacitating devices, and electronically-activated weapons. The issue was brought to the public's attention by default in during the Jali commission of inquiry into corruption in the department, which described sexual violence as a "horrific scourge … that plagues our prisons", the findings of which made the front page of newspapers around the country.