In this sense, they are not typical rational learners Nachbar , Binmore and Samuelson Some research, like that of Murnen,  show that when feminine people offer refusals, the refusals are verbal and typically direct. Traditionally, men and women had completely opposing roles, men were seen as the provider for the family and women were seen as the caretakers of both the home and the family. Operant conditioning is the increase that an action will occur again by increasing the reinforced response. Norms grow or shrink in proportion to both how many agents adhere to them at a given time, and their relative payoffs. Second, we must investigate the conditions under which a norm is stable under some competitive pressure from other norms. Coleman and Axelrod typically take the repeated prisoner's dilemma game as an example of the working of sanctions. One of those emotions can be widely attributed to guilt. Conversely, if all group members equally share the reward for a jointly performed task, group identification is going to be enhanced. If I do not use the sign language everybody else uses, I will not be able to communicate, and if I blow my nose in my hands, I will send out the wrong signal about who I am. As an adjunct faculty member at Park University, Manuela has taught psychology, social psychology, and a tests and measurements course. Insofar as individuals are role-bearers, in Parsons' theory it is social entities that act, entities that are completely detached from the individual actions that created them. This lends itself to investigations about the competitive dynamics of norms over long time horizons. A more interesting case, and one relevant to a study of the reproduction of norms of cooperation, is that of a population in which several competing strategies are present at any given time. The other is equilibrium selection not explicable by the game itself. Norms of honesty, loyalty, reciprocity and promise keeping, to name but a few cooperative norms, are crucial to the smooth functioning of social groups. Department of Justice policies.